• Legis Scriptor

Copyright Infringement

Authored By- Mahee Chouksey

Keywords- Intellectual Property, Infringement, Disseminate, Provision


In order to stave off the importation of overstepping copies in India, the Copyright Act 1957 makes accessible an effective and timely administrative remedy to the holder of the copyright. Copyright infringement happens if the infringing work is substantially identical to the copyright task.


The intellectual property right is a legal right that is permitted to the owners for a specific period of the moment to safeguard their actual work from unauthorized practice. Copyright is one of the intellectual property rights which we involuntary delivered to the author or producer of actual work, which gives them the sole right to reproduce and allocate the copyrighted work.

Copyright law in India

In history, copyright infringements, primarily for products made in industrialized countries, were a familiar place. But, with growing reasoning about the significance of copyright, there has been a reduction in the cases noted. Burden from international companions and corporations to has compelled the Government to be tough against copyright infringements.

In India, copyright laws are the preserve of The Copyright Act 1957 (hereinafter, the Act). The Copyright Act, 2012, is the most significant and brings the law in conformity with two WIPO Internet treaties concluded in 1996 – the WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) and WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT).

If any copyright breach occurs, numerous actions can be put up with under Section 55 of the Act. These comprise injunction, financial assistance, and imprisonment. In India, those organize guilty of copyright infringement could endure imprisonment ranging from six months to three years, or a can be censured a fine of up to Rs 2 lakh.

Benefits of copyright

1. Exclusive use: Once a copyright is earned from a work, others cannot use it without authorization. If any infringement takes place, the owner can accomplish a legal activity.

2. Report of ownership: Once the copyright can be registered, there will be a populace record of the possession of your work.

3. Staving off misuse: Copyright owners can stave off misuse of their work by enrolling copyright. They have extra control over how it is proposed to the public.

4. Monetary gain: The most vital privilege is the economy you derive from the same. You will have the exclusive right to any revenue that accrues from your actual work.

5. Facilitates creativity: It encourages widespread creativity in the community as owners enjoy the advantages of creative work.

Types of Copyright

1. Economic Rights – Rights that allow the owner to derive financial rewards from the use of their work by others.

2. Moral Rights – Rights that authorize the owner of the actual work to take specific actions to conserve and preserve their work.

Term of Copyright

Copyright protection is granted to the author for a limited period i.e. life of authors + 60 years. The possessor of intellectual property or a copyright holder has subsequent rights;

(i) Publishing work

(ii) Production of a work

(iii) Producing copies

(iv) Broadcasting

(v) Making adaptation

(vi) Preventing others from making unauthorized copies.

Description of Infringement

Section 51; copyright in a work is deemed to be infringed.

1. When any person without a license from the owner of the copyright, or the register of copyright, or in contravention of the conditions of a license granted or any conditions imposed by a competent authority under the at:-

(i) Does anything, the exclusive rights to do which is prohibited, or.

(ii) Warrants for profit any portion to be utilized for the communication of the work, to the populace where extreme communication constitutes an infringement of the copyright in the work unless he was not familiar and had no adequate basis for acknowledging that such communication to the common world be an infringement of copyright, or

2. When any person

(i) Gives rise for sale or hires, or sells lets for hire or by mean of trade exhibits or invitations for sale or hire any infringing editions of the work, or

(ii) Disseminates, either for the objective of trade or to such a degree as to affect prejudicially the owner of the copyright, any infringing editions of the work, or

(iii) Presentations in populace by means of trade any infringing portraits of the work, or

(iv) Essence into India any Infringing portraits of the work except one copy of any work, for the private and domestic use of the importer.

The reproduction of a literary dramatic, musical, or artistic work in the form of a cinematography film all is deemed to be an infringing copy.

Copyright Infringement Provisions

The 2012 amendments to the Act inaugurated distinct provisions that are precisely relevant to copyright infringement and the internet.

Beneath the decent use provisions of the Act, section 52(1) (b) provides that transient or arbitrary storage of a work or performance purely in the technical process of electronic transmission or communication to the public does not include infringement of copyright. This provision empowers safe harbour to internet service providers that may have incidentally stocked infringing copies of a work for the reason of transmission of data.

Section 52(1) (c) further provides that transient or arbitrary storage of a work or performance for the purpose of providing electronic links, access, or integration that is not expressly forbidden by the rights holder would not be an infringement of copyright unless the person accountable is conscious of infringement or has adequate grounds for believing that such storage is that of an infringing copy.

Under section 52(1) (c), if the holder of a copyrighted work, in a written complaint to the person accountable for digitally storing an infringing copy of the work, complains that such transient or arbitrary storage is an infringement, then the person responsible would have to abstain from stimulating access to the infringing copy of the work for a period of 21 days. If within 21 days, the person responsible does not accept an order from an eligible court that directs the person responsible to refrain from providing access, then access may be returned to at the end of that period.

In the case of Rogers vs. Koons,[1] The court found the resemblances between the 2 images too intimate, and that a “typical individual” would be able to acknowledge the copy. Koon's defence was dismissed under the argument that he could have used a better generic reference to make a similar statement- without duplicating Rogers' work. Loons were compelled to compensate for financial settlement to Rodgers.

In the case of Cariou vs. Prince,[2] The court reached to a final decision, in this case, and the judge ordered in favour of Prince for the plurality of the work in conflict or disputed, alleging that Prince's work renovated the work in the manner that it was aesthetically different, and thus sufficient under the assertion of the reasonable use.

Damages for Copyright Infringement

There are three types of damages that may be recovered.

1. Actual damages in the form of lost revenue or sales.

2. An additional profit of the infringement.

3. And, statutory damages

Moreover, infringed additional profits can only be recovered when that profit exceeds the copyright owners’ actual damages.

However, exceptions to infringement under Sec.5 of the Act include personal use, including research Objection or review, whether of that practice or any other work. The reporting of modern events and current affairs, encompassing the reporting of a lecture conveyed in public also constitutes an exception to infringement of copyright.

Remedies for Infringement of Copyright

1. Civil remedy: According to Section 55 of The Copyright Act, 1957, where copyright in any work has been violated upon, the holder of the copyright shall be entitled to all such solutions by way of injunction, damages, & accounts.

2. Criminal remedy: According to Section 63 of The Copyright Act, 1957, the copyright holder can take criminal proceedings against the infringer, in which there is a prerequisite of at least six-month imprisonment, which may be extended to 3 years and with a fine of Rs. 50,000, which may broaden to 2 lakhs.


To conclude, the basic reason for copyright is to safeguard the rights of the owner, producer, or creator and deliver the encouragements and monetary benefits to the creator, the scope of copyright lengthens to the literary or artistic work which mandates creativity encompassing Database and computer software. The registration of work is not mandatory to be eligible for copyright however; it is often instructed to register the work because it assists as evidence in the tribunal.

[1] 960 F.2d 301 [2] 714 F.3d 694