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India China Face Off


Authored by - Aman Porwal

Keywords - India China Face Off, Dokhlam Issue, Galwan India, International Security


Abstract


India and China are among the most powerful and densely populated nations across the world. Both these countries are facing numerous issues pertaining to border security, international diplomacy and are facing disputes regarding land. In recent times, the disputes related to land arose 3 years back in Dokhlam (2017) and now in Galwan (2020). This article shall be discussing in-depth about the face off between India and China and the origin of their dispute.


Introduction


India and China have had a long history of rivalry, the rivalry which is actually a low-profile war from decades, after the 1962 war until the first quarter of 2020. China also shares India’s second most high-profile border line which is called as the Line of actual control (LAC). India shares over 3888 km of its border with China which crosses several states of India, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttrakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Union territory of Ladakh. During the India-China War in 1962, the Chinese made an incursion and took a huge part of the land belong to India, which is termed as Aksai Chin.


India China Face Off


India and China are in a huge conflict on the LAC Border since 5th of May 2020. China as a habitual expansionist tried to make several incursions at different points namely Galwan Valley, Hot Spring and Pangong Tso. Moreover, China deployed number of Public Liberation Army (PLA) soldiers to make threats and attack India. The Indian Army also deployed several troops to protect the border and keep an eye on the Chinese soldiers. After the aggressiveness expressed from both the sides, the excessive aggression resulted in a clash between the nations on 15th of June 2020. Both sides had multiple casualties, precisely 20 Indian soldiers were martyred and 43 PLA[1] Troops were killed. In addition to this, China also got a befitting reply from India, resulting in the ban of a few Chinese apps that included Tiktok, Camscanner etc. The Galwan Valley Clash was fought without guns, as per the agreement named ‘Peace Accord’ that was signed by former Prime Minister P.V. Narsimha Rao in 1993.[2] The Chinese PLA troops used iron rods, sticks and roads covered with thorns to attack the Indian Army.


Reasons Behind China’s Aggression


There are many theories that explain China's aggression towards India –


1. DSDBO Road – Darbuk Shyok DBO Road is a 255 km long Road, which India has built to upgrade its infrastructure for defence. It takes lesser time to send supplies to the Indian Army. In addition to this, the road is at a higher altitude which helps the Indian soldiers oversee the route of China’s economic corridor to Pakistan.

2. China’s Economy – China has had a huge blow in its economy due to the global pandemic. As a result, Chinese citizens are not happy with the Chinese government as their government is making several changes that go against their wishes. The government’s focus is primarily towards the economy which seems to be in a recession.

3. Fear of Pakistan occupied Kashmir –China has an inherent fear that Pakistan will lose Pakistan occupied Kashmir to India because of the recent developments that Government of India has made. This includes the abrogation of Article 370 of the Constitution, which creates a huge impact on terrorism in Kashmir. From January to mid-July, there was a marginal drop of terrorist related attacks from 223 to 78[3]. As per the latest reports, there was also a 40% drop in youth joining terrorist groups.[4]

4. String of Pearls – China is trying to capture whole of South Asia to acquire more power. By capturing Tibet, Mongolia and by offering large amounts of money to Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Nepal, String of Pearls will make the country stronger and more powerful in the Asian continent.

5. Expansionist –India is currently struggling as a result of COVID-19. It has resulted in a massive slowdown in the economy. This seems like a lucrative offer for China to expand their territory. It is pertinent to know that China has had land disputes with several other countries in the past too.


Retaliation by India


During the India-China standoff, India and China had multiple meetings to cooperate and establish peace. However, the demands stated by both the countries were different and the meeting seemed to have reached an impasse. China wanted India to compromise its land but India stood against China and denied giving any land. Indian government wanted China to maintain peace, however India retaliated to China after the Galwan Valley Clash by banning 59 Chinese Apps[5]. These apps were allegedly involved in leaking personal data of Indian users to the Chinese government. India has also started the “Aatmanirbhar Bharat” campaign with a tag line of ‘Self Reliant India’. There is an increasing demand for Indian goods and a massive decline in the use of Chinese goods. Indian Government has also cancelled several contracts with Chinese companies, which has resulted in strategically cutting an arm of China. This boycott has impacted China’s economy to a great extent.

Conclusion


First time in the history of China, a neighbouring country has given such a befitting reply and blown the Chinese agenda, which has resulted in China taking a step back from Galwan Valley and the Hot Spring region. However, the dispute is still going on in Pangong Tso and PP17 A Gogra. It has led to serious tensions between the relations of both countries. For the best interest of both the countries, it is vital if India and China establish peace. A physical war, specially during a global pandemic will not only result in greater damage to both countries, in terms of resources and their economy. It will also affect several other nations across the world as well.

Reference

[1] https://www.google.com/amp/s/defence.capital/2020/06/20/43-pla-soldiers-dead-some-held-hostage-returned-to-China-india-minister/amp/ [2] Official Document Signed Between India and China in 1993 https://www.mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/6534/Agreement+between+the+Government+of+the+Republic+of+India+and+the+Government+of+the+Peoples+Republic+of+China+on+the+Political+Parameters+and+Guiding+Principles+for+the+Settlement+of+the+IndiaChina+Boundary+Question

[3] https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/news-analysispost-article-370-78-terrorists-killed-in-january-may-this-year/article31839424.ece

[4] https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/40-dip-in-kashmiri-youth-joining-militancy-mos-home/articleshow/70149360.cms [5] https://www.google.com/amp/s/m.economictimes.com/tech/software/india-bans-59-chinese-apps-including-tiktok-helo-wechat/amp_articleshow/76694814.cms

[6] https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/2020_China%E2%80%93India_skirmishes

[7] https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.mapsofindia.com/my-india/education/the-

[8] international-border-lines-of-india/amp

https://www.livemint.com/topic/india-China-face-off/page-11




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