International Peace and Position of India
Authored By- Munis Nasir
Keywords- Humanitarian assistance, Non-permanent, Conventions
With wars, internal conflicts and some international conflicts, it is very difficult to maintain international peace. From the League of Nations to UN the definition of international peace had not changed much. India, the sovereign, democratic, republic country played a crucial role in maintaining international peace.
Peace means freedom from disturbance. Further, it can be said as freedom from any sort of conflicts. Therefore, international peace means freedom from conflicts between states at large.
The United Nations is an international organisation founded in the year 1945. The primary motive of the formation of the United Nations Organization was to prevent any future conflicts. Earlier before the formation of the UN many organizations were formed to restrict future conflicts between states. In the year 1920, the League of Nations was formed with 37 countries but later failed due to dominance of some states over the others. In the year 1939, the United States President Franklin D Roosevelt gave a proposal to build a bigger league of nations. In the year 1942, the United States of America, United Kingdom, Soviet Union and China signed a short declaration which was called the UN declaration. Further, on 25th April, 1945, 50 government organisations and many non-governmental organisations drafted the UN Charter. Finally, on 24th October, 1945, the UN charter was ratified and passed by the five Permanent Members (USA, UK, USSR, China and France) and 46 other members. On 6th January 1946, the 1st general assembly was held in London.
In case of conflicts between the states, the matter goes to The United Nation Organization (UNO). The key objective of the UN is peacekeeping, protection of human rights and providing humanitarian assistance. The main organs of the UN are: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice and the UN Secretariat.
United Nation and India’s Position
India was among the original and the oldest members of the United Nations. India has been a member of the UN Security Council for a period of ongoing 16 years. India is a charter member of the United Nations and actively participates in all of its organizations. On 1st January 1942, India signed the Declaration of the United Nations. At the time of declaration Girija Shankar Bajpai represented India who was the then Indian Agent General. India always stood at front during the UN years of struggle against colonialism. India’s status as a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and Group of 77 uplifted its position in the UN system as a leading power for the concerns and the aspirations of the developing countries. Further India cemented its position in the UN as an important guarantor for maintaining international peace and security.
In the case of Jolly George Verghese&Anr v. The Bank of Cochin, the Supreme Court of India held that the basic human rights enshrined in the International Covenants, may at best inform judicial institutions and inspire legislative action within member-states, but apart from deep reverence, remedial action at the instance of an aggrieved individual is beyond the area of judicial authority.
United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six organs of the UN which is responsible for maintaining international peace and security. The UNSC consists of 15 members where five are the permanent members and the other ten are the non-permanent members. Whenever there is a security crisis anywhere in the world, the matter is brought before the UNSC, where they try to reach a common point through mediation.
Recently a year ago, India was elected as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) for a period of two years with 184 votes in the General Assembly consisting of 193 members. This remained as the eight time when India had been elected as the non-permanent member of the UNSC.
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Its principal motive is to settle legal disputes between States in accordance with the conventions of international law. The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for a period of nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the United Nations Security Council.
From 1945 till present, a total of three members from India have been appointed as the Judges of the International Court of Justice. One of the famous cases in the ICJ by India was the KulbhushanJadhav case whereby he was sentenced to death by a Pakistani military court without a proper trial.
Global Peace Index
Global Peace Index is an index which investigates the extent to which countries are involved in their ongoing domestic and international conflicts. There are 23 criteria set up to measure the global peace index of a nation which involves level of societal safety and security, extent of ongoing domestic and international conflict, degree of militarisation etc. As per Global Peace Index 2019 Iceland was the most peaceful country in the world and Afghanistan as the least peaceful country in the world. However India rankedat 141 position among 163 countries on the Global Peace Index 2019. India together with Philippines, Japan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Indonesia, Vietnam and Pakistan were the nine countries with the highest multiple climate hazards. The score for internal conflicts remained high in both India and Pakistan.
Therefore it can been with ongoing internal conflicts in India and wars, it managed to stand straight in order to maintain its reputation at the international level. From time to time India showed its active participation in the events at international level.
 1980 AIR 470, 1980 SCR (2) 913