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The effects of Climate change in India

Authored By Hitika Arora

Keywords: Temperature, Agricultural productivity, Migration, Climatic Condition, destruction.


The effects of climate change have been enough to endanger human life both directly and indirectly through high temperatures, increasing sea levels, water and food reserve impacts. Extreme events like floods, road earthquakes, etc. permitting shelter and population displacement directly results in environmental conditions. The diffusion of diseases whether it is waterborne disease or respiratory allergies, malnutrition, etc. Some indirect reserves of climate change are mental health problems or involuntary migration. Seeing the increasing effect of climate change on human life. The Investment on Research and Development, Health Risk calculation studies, scenario modeling and acceptance of the clean expansion mechanism sector,etc. are the need of the earth hour. In this article the effects of climate change in India will be talked about through state to state.


Weather is the state of the climate at a particular period. It is divided in certain frameworks such as temperature, humidity, rain and wind. The effects of climatic changes aren’t steady anymore. The provocations it shows are terrifying not just putting the lives of each other but the future of the world on an unpredictable stand. As a developing country, India requires to focus on how climate change is impacting growth and should take initiatives that are substantial in nature. The increase in temperature has brought in unmatched spells of hot weather across the globe and has influenced countries with hot temperature. The instability in climate is expected to occur far more while far more while enclosing far bigger areas than seen before. There has been a recorded decrease in monsoon rainfall since 1950 and it is doubted at 2 degrees Celsius rise in world’s temperature will make India’s monsoon even more unpredictable. Change in monsoon can make certain states flooded in India, while some other states can witness frequent droughts.

Many survey reports show that there has been a prevalence of drought in parts of India since 1970 and it has affected agricultural production. Northwestern states like orissa,chhattisgarh and Jharkhand have been facing fall in crop fields and undoubtedly fall further referring to the effects of climate change. Coastal cities like Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata are suspected to be pretentious due to climatic change, which will give rise to higher ocean waves.

India's primary occupation is agriculture and 60% of India’s agriculture is dependent on rain And due to temperature change 15% of India’s groundwater resources are affected and water table is suspected to make a severe blow in agriculture. And, the rising of CO2 levels is suspected to lessen the amount of quality in crops like wheat and rice, which is a primary food source for the major population of the country. Heat waves are already claiming the lives of thousands of people in South Asia and According to surveys, the frequency of heatwaves will continue to rise as climate conditions go down. According to research by the US, heat waves that can kill even healthy people are suspected to reach India soon. Rising sea level is also a big concern, the surges of storms would also impact agriculture and can increase the risk of contamination of water and giving rise to diarrhea and Cholera. Cities like Kolkata and Mumbai are suspected to be affected by the sea level rises increasing temperature in is leading to increase in precipitation but aftermath storms are unclear.

India might face destructive climatic change effects, including excessive heat waves and floods. Year mean temperatures over India are likely to increase by 4.2 degrees Celsius under a large discharge scenario by the end of the 21st century.

India is the second largest populated region in the world, with relatively high sensitivity and low flexibility to change in its climate, all of which makes it unprotected and dangerous to any changes that may occur during the rest of the 21st century. Major parts of India’s population, climate and economy are all vulnerable to major risk in the face of future temperature rise. The enhanced temperature rise is likely to further speed up the glacier meant over the region, which result in increase in flood and this could lead to serious involvement for crops, ecosystem and, populations living downstream. Moreover, the rise in temperatures is likely to increase the frequency of heat waves over the country’s plain. A study shows that there is projected to be a higher increase in rainfall over Northwestern India, including Gujarat and Rajasthan, while the winter fall also shows a larger increase over Gujarat and adjacent states under all future scenarios.


Even the most rigid alleviation efforts can’t avoid the danger of climate change over the next coming years. Indeed, this is the beginning to see the effects now, this makes adaption very important, particularly for addressing short-term effects. However, absolute climate change, in the long-term, is most likely to extend our capacity to adapt. It is very important, then, to develop some strategies that include reduction, adoption and technological development. But the strategies are restricted by lack of information on potential cost of effects, by lack of information on the damage that can be avoided by adaptation and especially by lack of understanding. It is very important that these gaps in our knowledge should be filled quickly.


IPCC, 2007(a): Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P.Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 976 pp.

IPCC, 2007(b): Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.V. Avery, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (Eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York, USA, 996 pp.

IPCC, 2007(c): Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 102 pp