Traditional Crimes v. Social & Economic Offences
Authored By- Ekta Choudhary
Keywords- Crimes, Social & Economic Offences, Traditional Crime, Victim & Offender, Society/Community
Traditional Crimes in terms of the relationships between the victim and therefore the offender or in terms of the physical distance between them. Residential and commercial burglary, threats, and fraud happened. To commit burglaries, however, offenders rarely use Information and Communication Technology (ICT). In 2.8% of the residential burglaries, however, bank cards were stolen and later want to steal money from a checking account. For commercial burglary, there was no associated ICT. Traditional Crimes, the geographical distance between the victim and therefore the offender is larger. The study found that physical tools are more often linked to apprehension than digital ones. The regression models, however, showed digital and physical tools to be equally strong at predicting apprehension.
Social & Economic Offences: The expansion in social & economic offences is followed to the materialism and business competitiveness fostered by industrialization, including a decline within the influence of spiritual ethics that demand material accomplishments while emphasizing honest and fair dealings with others. These aspects influenced India after World War II, and India's criminal jurisprudence had limited opportunity to shape itself to contradict the growing tide of social & economic offences. In addition to providing stronger deterrent elements for social & economic crimes through simpler enforcement, prosecution, and sentencing, the stigma attached to social & economic offences should be enhanced by raising the social consciousness against such crime, through increased publicity, about the trials and convictions of these accused of such crimes.
This New Digital Age has created what we fondly call “cyber crimes”, a new breed of the Traditional Crimes where the demarcation rests in the involvement capacity of an individual or entity at any stage of the virtual cyber medium.
Both cyber and traditional crimes include conduct, whether act or omission, which runs foul and breach the rules of law. In crime, it often involves criminal activities that are traditional in nature, such as sedition, intrusion, scam, pornography, theft, fraud, forgery, defamation, etc. The rampant exploitation of ICT has also introduced another type of crime such as hacking, phishing, spamming, web defacement, cyberstalking, cyber harassment, botnet, malware infection, etc.
Social & Economic Offences:
Social Crimes affect the health, ethics, and morals of the public and economic offences consist of those offences that affect the economy of the whole country. These are punishable under the special laws of crimes. Social & economic offences are many a time used as a synonym for white-collar crimes.
White-collar crimes are the crimes committed by people belonging to upper caste and rich backgrounds. Whereas, a social & economic offence can be committed by anybody.
What is Traditional Crime?
Traditional crimes are in terms of the relationships between the victim and the offender or, in terms of the physical distance between them e.g. Residential and commercial burglary, threats, and fraud. Enhancing digitalization and globalization is building more opportunities, by blurring the lines between traditional crime and cybercrime.
Types of Traditional Offences:
There are four sorts of traditional crime (violent, theft, fraud, and illegal activities) described below:
1. VIOLENT- It is often done by harassment, starting threads about people, creating hate groups, and planning agendas.
2. THEFT- fraud, hacking bank accounts, hacking Social Security information, and hacking personal databases.
3. FRAUD- By using the stolen identity to get things or make negotiations, by acting to be somebody else, or by hacking someone's social network account to contact others.
4. ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES- Selling medicine not prescribed to people, harassment, pornography, human slavery, and illicit gaming.
Causes of Traditional Crimes:
To earn a large amount of money, traditional criminals always choose an easy way. Banks, casinos, companies, and, financial firms are the wealthy organizations and their target centres where a big amount of money runs daily and has diplomatic information. It’s very difficult to catch those criminals. Hence, the number of traditional-crimes are increasing day-by-day across the globe. We required so many laws to protect and safeguard.
Case Laws of Traditional Crimes
The Bank NSP Case
A management trainee of the bank was engaged to be married. The couple exchanged many emails using the organization computers. After a while, they broke up and therefore the girl created fraudulent email id's like "Indian bar associations" and sent emails to the boy's foreign clients. She used the bank’s computer to do this. The boy's company lost an outsized number of clients and took the bank to court. The bank was held responsible for the emails sent using the bank's system.
What are Social & Economic Offences?
The offences that affect the social and economic health of the society are termed as social & economic crimes. These crimes affect society at large. It does not target any individual but a number of persons who are most likely consumers of such goods and services.
Types of Social & Economic Offences
There are some different types of Social & Economic Offences-
● Actions calculated and implemented so as to obstruct the economic development of the country and also its economic health.
● Evasion of taxes.
● Misuse of position and power by the general public servants which are presumed to up as a Corruption.
● All activities associated with black marketing and hoarding, etc.
Causes of Social & Economic Offences
1. World War II: Postwar conditions of the countries were pathetic which led to changes in the normal working of the society.
2. When new businesses started to emerge in the country, it created a sense of extreme competitiveness among them.
3. The emergence of technology and scientific developments led to a decrease in the belief of the almighty.
4. As the fear for the ultimate judgment or the world beyond all humanly things started to disappear, people’s morals and ethics started to decline.
Case Law of Social & Economic Offences
Mak Data Pvt. Ltd. v. CIT
In Mak Data Pvt. Ltd. v. CIT petitioner concealed his income to evade taxes. Later a show-cause notice was served to him. He agreed to surrender a sum to avoid litigation. It had been held by the SC that the sense of surrender of the sum was made after the detection was made, if the purpose of the appellant was pure, he would have filed a return inclusive of the amount which is surrendered later, after the assessment proceeding.
Traditional Crime- Though, not all people are targets of traditional crimes, they are still at risk. Crimes by computer vary, and that they don’t always occur behind the personal computer, but they are executed by a computer. With technology increasing, criminals have everything they need on their lap. Attacker weapons aren’t guns anymore; they strike with mouse cursors and passwords.
Social & Economic Offences- Many offences have been prevailing in the society for a long time. Offences are illegal actions resulting from the breach of law. Social & Economic crimes impact the overall community as well as on the entire nation, economic development may be affected if any such type of activity continuously going on, such as Corruption, misuse of power and responsibility, black hoarding, evasion of taxes, etc.
 119 (2005) DLT 596, 2005 (30) PTC 437 De.  (2014) 1 SCC 674.